Thursday, 3 October 2013

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Pencil Sketch Download Biography

Possible Worlds: An Introduction to Logic and Its Philosophy.  Co-authored with Raymond Bradley.  (Indianapolis: Hackett), first published 1979.  The fourth printing with corrections, 2010 – Copyright © Raymond Bradley and Norman Swartz – may be downloaded for free.
The Concept of Physical Law.  (New York: Cambridge University Press), 1985.  The second edition, 2003 – Copyright © Norman Swartz – may be downloaded for free.

Beyond Experience: Metaphysical Theories and Philosophical Constraints. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press), 1991. The second edition, 2001 – Copyright © Norman Swartz – may be downloaded for free.

hilosophical Notes

You might like to peruse my page of philosophical notes, miscellaneous lectures, papers, etc., that I have distributed to students over the years. As well, I have also assembled a collection of material written by others, that I have found to be fun, and informative, to read.


Up till the time I was a senior in high school, I was determined to become an electrical engineer. But in my senior year, my brother who was studying physics in university, convinced me that jobs would be easier to find for physicists than for engineers. And so I changed directions, and studied physics in university. I was well on my way to becoming a physicist when, in my third year, I took an introductory philosophy course as an elective. I wonder if there ever was a student who knew less about what philosophy is! I hadn't the remotest clue what philosophers thought about. That philosophy course was a revelation. For the first time in my life I discovered that other persons, indeed one hundred generations of thinkers, had been discussing the issues which kept intruding into my thinking. I was totally hooked. As soon as I graduated, I switched directions again, that second and last time from physics to philosophy. I would have been a contented engineer (even now I love to tinker with electronics and do some occasional carpentry and plumbing); I would have been a contented physicist; but I have never regretted abandoning those pursuits for philosophy.
     Why have I read, written, and taught philosophy? At bottom, the answer is very simple: because for me it has been so much fun. I have pursued certain philosophical issues – most especially the nature of time and space, personal identity, laws of nature, and free will – because they fascinate me. It's just my nature. There's no value judgment attached. Other persons like sports; others, reading novels; others, playing the real estate market; etc. Each to their own. I don't for a moment believe that students ought to like philosophy. Those that do, fine; those that do not, equally fine.

     Actually I'll let you in on a public secret. Above all, I would have preferred to have been a musician. I am incredibly jealous of fine musicians. I would willingly give my right arm to be a concert violinist. But it's not to be: I can enjoy music rapturously; but I cannot make music. (I've tried; it's hopeless. And so I have been a philosopher.) My heros are Bach, Beethoven, Schubert, Brahms, Verdi, Puccini, Prokofiev, and the inimitable (and sorely missed) Glenn Gould.

     No one is solely a philosopher. I have been a philosopher by profession; I earned my living by writing and teaching philosophy. But I am also a husband, a father and grandfather, a son, and a brother – on all of which I lavish time and affection. And for the last ten years or more, especially in the time since I retired in 1998, I have been active in fighting purveyors of hate and have been doing volunteer work within, and for, a number of human rights and charitable organizations.

Edward Lear was an English artist, illustrator, author, and poet, renowned today primarily for his literary nonsense, in poetry and prose, and especially his limericks, a form that he popularised. 


Lear was born into a middle-class family in the village of Holloway, the 21st child of Ann and Jeremiah Lear. He was raised by his eldest sister, also named Ann, 21 years his senior. Ann doted on Lear and continued to mother him until her death, when Lear was almost 50 years of age. Due to the family's failing financial fortune, at age four he and his sister had to leave the family home and set up house together. 

Lear suffered from health problems. From the age of six he suffered frequent grand mal epileptic seizures, and bronchitis, asthma, and in later life, partial blindness. Lear experienced his first seizure at a fair near Highgate with his father. The event scared and embarrassed him. Lear felt lifelong guilt and shame for his epileptic condition. His adult diaries indicate that he always sensed the onset of a seizure in time to remove himself from public view. How Lear was able to anticipate them is not known, but many people with epilepsy report a ringing in their ears (tinnitus) or an aura before the onset of a seizure. In Lear's time epilepsy was believed to be associated with demonic possession, which contributed to his feelings of guilt and loneliness. When Lear was about seven he began to show signs of depression, possibly due to the constant instability of his childhood. He suffered from periods of severe depression which he referred to as "the Morbids." 

Lear travelled widely throughout his life and eventually settled in Sanremo, on his beloved Mediterranean coast, in the 1870s, at a villa he named "Villa Tennyson." The closest he came to marriage was two proposals, both to the same woman 46 years his junior, which were not accepted. For companions he relied instead on a circle of friends and correspondents, and especially, in later life, on his Albanian Suliot chef, Giorgis, a faithful friend and, as Lear complained, a thoroughly unsatisfactory chef. Another trusted companion in Sanremo was his cat, Foss, who died in 1886 and was buried with some ceremony in a garden at Villa Tennyson. After a long decline in his health, Lear died at his villa in 1888, of the heart disease from which he had suffered since at least 1870. Lear's funeral was said to be a sad, lonely affair by the wife of Dr. Hassall, Lear's physician, not one of Lear's many lifelong friends being able to attend. 

Lear is buried in the Foce Cemetery in Sanremo. On his headstone are inscribed these lines about Mount Tomohrit (Albania) from Tennyson's To E.L. [Edward Lear], On His Travels in Greece: 

Tomohrit, Athos, all things fair. 
With such a pencil, such a pen. 
You shadow forth to distant men, 
I read and felt that I was there. 

Edward Lear was known to introduce himself with his long name: "Mr Abebika kratoponoko Prizzikalo Kattefello Ablegorabalus Ableborinto phashyph" or "Chakonoton the Cozovex Dossi Fossi Sini Tomentilla Coronilla Polentilla Battledore & Shuttlecock Derry down Derry Dumps" which he based on Aldiborontiphoskyphorniostikos. 

The centenary of his death was marked in Britain with a set of Royal Mail stamps in 1988 and an exhibition at the Royal Academy. Lear's birthplace area is now badged with a plaque at Bowman's Mews, Islington in London and his bicentenary in 2012 celebrated with a range of events, exhibitions and lectures in venues across the world including an International Owl and Pussycat Day on his birthday. 


Lear was already drawing "for bread and cheese" by the time he was aged 16 and soon developed into a serious "ornithological draughtsman" employed by the Zoological Society and then from 1832-36 by the Earl of Derby, who had a private menagerie. His first publication, published when he was 19, was Illustrations of the Family of Psittacidae, or Parrots in 1830. His paintings were well received and he was favourably compared with Audubon. 

Lear travelled for three years in Italy from 1837 and published two volumes of illustrations, Illustrated Excursions in Italy, the first of many such books. Lear briefly gave drawing lessons to Queen Victoria, who had been pleased by the Excursions and summoned him to court, leading to some awkward incidents when he failed to observe proper court protocol. Lear then returned to the Mediterranean, wishing to illustrate all points along the coast of that sea. 

Among other trips, he visited Greece and Egypt in 1848-49, and toured the length of India and Ceylon in 1873-75. While travelling he produced large quantities of coloured wash drawings in a distinctive style, which he worked up back in his studio into oils and watercolours, as well as prints for his books. His landscape style often shows views with strong sunlight, with intense contrasts of colour. 

Throughout his life he continued to paint seriously. He had a lifelong ambition to illustrate Tennyson's poems; near the end of his life a volume with a small number of illustrations was published, but his vision for the work was never realized. 


In 1846 Lear published A Book of Nonsense, a volume of limericks that went through three editions and helped popularize the form. In 1865 The History of the Seven Families of the Lake Pipple-Popple was published, and in 1867 his most famous piece of nonsense, The Owl and the Pussycat, which he wrote for the children of his patron Edward Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby. Many other works followed. 

Lear's nonsense books were quite popular during his lifetime, but a rumour circulated that "Edward Lear" was merely a pseudonym, and the books' true author was the man to whom Lear had dedicated the works, his patron the Earl of Derby. Supporters of this rumour offered as evidence the facts that both men were named Edward, and that "Lear" is an anagram of "Earl". 

Lear's Limericks 

Lear's nonsense works are distinguished by a facility of verbal invention and a poet's delight in the sounds of words, both real and imaginary. A stuffed rhinoceros becomes a "diaphanous doorscraper". A "blue Boss-Woss" plunges into "a perpendicular, spicular, orbicular, quadrangular, circular depth of soft mud". His heroes are Quangle-Wangles, Pobbles, and Jumblies. His most famous piece of verbal invention, a "runcible spoon" occurs in the closing lines of The Owl and the Pussycat, and is now found in many English dictionaries: 

They dined on mince, and slices of quince 
Which they ate with a runcible spoon; 
And hand in hand, on the edge of the sand, 
They danced by the light of the moon, 
The moon, 
The moon, 
They danced by the light of the moon. 

Though famous for his neologisms, Lear employed a number of other devices in his works in order to defy reader expectations. For example, "Cold Are The Crabs", adheres to the sonnet tradition until the dramatically foreshortened last line. 

Limericks are invariably typeset as four plus one lines today, but Lear's limericks were published in a variety of formats. It appears that Lear wrote them in manuscript in as many lines as there was room for beneath the picture. In the first three editions most are typeset as, respectively, two, five, and three lines. The cover of one edition bears an entire limerick typeset in two lines: 

There was an Old Derry down Derry, who loved to see little folks merry; 
So he made them a book, and with laughter they shook at the fun of that Derry down Derry. 

In Lear's limericks the first and last lines usually end with the same word rather than rhyming. For the most part they are truly nonsensical and devoid of any punch line or point. They are completely free of the off-colour humour with which the verse form is now associated. A typical thematic element is the presence of a callous and critical "they". An example of a typical Lear limerick: 

There was an Old Man of Aôsta, 
Who possessed a large Cow, but he lost her; 
But they said, 'Don't you see, 
she has rushed up a tree? 
You invidious Old Man of Aôsta!' 

Lear's self-portrait in verse, How Pleasant to know Mr. Lear, closes with this stanza, a reference to his own mortality:

He reads but he cannot speak Spanish, 
He cannot abide ginger-beer; 
Ere the days of his pilgrimage vanish, 
How pleasant to know Mr. Lear! 

Five of Lear's limericks from the Book of Nonsense, in the 1946 Italian translation by Carlo Izzo, were set to music for choir a cappella by Goffredo Petrassi, in 1952.

Edward Lear's Works:

Mount Timohorit, Albania (1848) 
Illustrations of the Family of the Psittacidae, or Parrots (1832) 
Tortoises, Terrapins, and Turtles by J.E. Gray 
Views in Rome and its Environs (1841) 
Gleanings from the Menagerie at Knowsley Hall (1846) 
Illustrated Excursions in Italy (1846) 
Book of Nonsense (1846) 
Journal of a Landscape Painter in Greece and Albania (1851) 
Journal of a Landscape Painter in Southern Calabria (1852) 
Book of Nonsense and More Nonsense (1862) 
Views in the Seven Ionian Isles (1863) 
Journal of a Landscape Painter in Corsica (1870) 
Nonsense Songs and Stories (1871) 
More Nonsense Songs, Pictures, etc. (1872) 
Laughable Lyrics (1877) 
Nonsense Alphabets 
Nonsense Botany (1888) 
Tennyson's Poems, illustrated by Lear (1889) 
Facsimile of a Nonsense Alphabet (1849, but not published until 1926) 
The Scroobious Pip, unfinished at his death, but completed by Ogden Nash and illustrated by Nancy Ekholm Burkert (1968) 
The Quangle-Wangle's Hat (unknown)

I had a happy childhood growing up in Western Australia. There were always pencils and paper at home and drawing came naturally to me. When other kids were still drawing stick figures, I was doing much more detailed pictures – arms and legs with two lines enclosing the shape of the limbs and real faces with real features.

Pencil sketch of dad and pen sketch of mum

My primary school teacher told me I’d be a fine artist one day and kept all my drawings. I was also lucky enough to have a wonderful art master at High School, Frank E. Mills, who gave me encouragement and taught me an enormous amount. With Jock Campbell, who worked for the education department, he organised some Saturday morning art sessions for gifted children in the metropolitan area. Anyone with talent was welcome to come along and simply mess around with the paints supplied, and eventually we had our own exhibition. When I was 16 I had my first solo exhibition in Perth, showing a collection of watercolours and a few oils of local landscapes. All the paintings sold and I had another show the following year.

I struggled at university. After two years I left and enrolled in teacher training college which I loved. My first job was perfect, teaching children to swim, but then something happened that changed everything. One day I found I couldn’t move properly and ended up in hospital, totally paralysed and fearing that I had polio. Fortunately, it turned it out to be a mysterious viral infection with similar symptoms and I slowly got better. During the months I was lying there, I had a lot of time to think and I came to a decision. I wanted to be painter. I wanted to go to London, the hub of the universe, to study art. In 1952, just before my 22nd birthday, I left on a ship bound for Europe.

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